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Forensic Psychology Schools and Degree Programs

How to Become a Forensic Psychologist

Forensic psychology is a rapidly growing discipline at the intersection of the fields of psychology and criminal justice. If the idea of applying clinical and theoretical understandings of human behaviors and mental health issues to challenges within the courts, corrections, or law enforcement systems appeals to you, forensic psychology may be a good career fit.

What is Forensic Psychology?

Forensic psychology is the application of psychology to our legal system. The word “forensic” comes from the Latin “forensis” or “of the forum,” with forums being Roman courts of law.

Experts typically recognize two definitions of forensic psychology: one that is narrowly applied to activity within the criminal justice system, and a broader definition that includes the body of knowledge surrounding these issues. The narrow definition deals with the application of clinical psychology skills such as assessment and treatment to those who encounter the legal system, such as suspected perpetrators, witnesses, or victims of crime. The broader definition emphasizes research and experimentation in other areas of psychology, such as cognitive and behavioral psychology, as they relate to issues in the legal arena.

What Does a Forensic Psychologist Do?

Forensic psychologists use research, clinical skills, and their knowledge of the legal system to evaluate and make recommendations about defendants, victims, and convicted offenders. As discussed above, there are two different focuses in forensic psychology: clinical and research.

Clinical-Focused Forensic Psychology

One of the most common jobs for forensic psychologists as clinicians is the assessment of various situations, locations, and people. This work includes:

  • Assessing suspects to make recommendations about whether the suspects are fit to stand trial
  • Reconstructing and gauging a suspect’s frame of mind and mental abilities at the time a crime occurred to determine a person’s mental state—”mens rea”—for insanity-defense cases
  • Evaluating victims and other witnesses to inform lawyers about the advisability of having them testify
  • Studying previous crimes and criminals to create a profile of a suspect
  • Performing threat assessments for schools
  • Analyzing domestic situations to provide child custody recommendations

Forensic psychologists communicate their findings to the appropriate legal professionals. They are frequently asked to testify in court proceedings.

The clinical aspect of forensic psychology also includes treatment and rehabilitation. Forensic psychologists might:

  • Counsel victims of crimes in hospitals, clinics, or private practice
  • Work in prisons to provide mental health services to individual inmates or groups
  • Treat police offers who are suffering from post-traumatic syndrome disorder (PTSD)
  • Work with youth in juvenile detention centers

Research-Focused Forensic Psychology

In contrast to their clinically focused colleagues, forensic psychologists involved in research both analyze existing research and conduct new research. They often have expertise in areas of psychology like cognitive psychology, abnormal psychology, or behavioral psychology. Research-focused forensic psychologists typically work at colleges and universities and may both teach and conduct research. Forensic science researchers write their findings in reports, journals, or, in some cases, books.

Research studies abound in the area of forensic psychology and can include topics such as criminal behavior, criminal responsibility, divorce and child custody, eyewitness memory, mental health law, police psychology, and sentencing and incarceration.

Forensic Psychologist Salary

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the median wage for psychologists as a whole was $79,010 a year, or $37.99 an hour, in 2018. Practitioners in some settings—like state government, for instance, a common employer type for forensic psychologists—earned higher median salaries than those in other industries.

PayScale provides salary information that is specific to forensic psychologists:

Career Length Median Salary Top 10%
Early Career (1–4 years’ experience) $67,400 $94,000
Mid-Career (5–9 years’ experience) $84,800 $128,000
Late-Career (10+ years’ experience) $114,800 $158,000

Salary data from Payscale

However, some forensic psychologists report much higher figures than those provided above. In the article American Psychological Association article “Postgrad growth area: Forensic psychology”, Mary Connell, a private practitioner in Fort Worth, Texas, put salary expectations at the low- to mid-six-figure range. She estimated that forensic psychologists typically earn anywhere from $200,000 to $400,000 annually, though that kind of earning potential may be reserved for forensic psychologists who have built high demand for their services from attorneys over multiple years in practice.

What are Some Forensic Psychology Jobs?

Careers in forensic psychology have rapidly grown in recent years thanks to an increased demand for skilled psychologists throughout the criminal and legal systems. Today, there are varying types of jobs in forensic psychology. While many provide direct services within the criminal justice and legal systems, including in jails or police departments, other forensic psychologists find jobs working in research centers, universities, hospitals, doctor’s offices, or forensic labs. Still others choose to be self-employed as independent consultants.

Forensic Psychologist Careers

Criminal Case Manager:  Also simply called case managers, these professionals are assigned to work with individuals in the penal system, providing mental health care and assisting with their recovery and reintegration to society. Some case managers assist formerly incarcerated people who still need support or those who independently seek help for mental illness or addiction.

  • Work locations: Criminal justice offices, mental health care locations, and addiction facilities
  • Pay and growth: $53,020, growth of 3%
Clinical Counselor: Often requiring additional licensure, clinical counselors with backgrounds in forensic psychology work with those who have addictions, are survivors of violence, or have otherwise experienced the legal system and need mental health assistance. Some clinical counselors provide traditional counseling in private practice.

  • Work locations: Criminal justice organizations (including the penal system), crisis centers and shelters, private practice
  • Pay and growth: $44,630/year, growth of 22%
Criminal Profiler: Criminal profilers study and interpret patterns in criminal behavior. They create profiles of potential, but unknown, serial offenders in an attempt to apprehend them before additional crimes are committed.

  • Work locations: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or local police departments
  • Pay and growth: $81,920, growth of 2%-3%
Jury Consultant: Jury consultants provide assistance to trial lawyers at various stages in the life of a case. Though they may work in areas like evidence evaluation and witness preparation, they also assist in the selection of jurors, including engaging in background research, questioning potential jurors, and even observing and reporting on juror behaviors during a trial. Jury consultants generally need a minimum of a master’s degree.

Victims’ Advocate: Victims’ advocates assist victims of crimes and/or their families in understanding their rights, help them access necessary resources, and act as a liaison between them and other parties (such as creditors and employers). Many attend court with victims to provide support in their times of greatest need, while others may work with 24-hour crisis hotlines.

  • Work locations: Crisis centers, social services agencies, criminal justice organizations
  • Pay and growth: $33,750, 13% growth

Steps to Becoming a Forensic Psychologist

Becoming a forensic psychologist requires a postgraduate degree, experience, and often licensure. Here is the typical path you will follow.

1. Obtain a Bachelor’s Degree

While there is more than one path to becoming a forensic psychologist, the first step is always the same: earn a bachelor’s degree from a fully accredited college or university. You don’t necessarily have to major in psychology, though some graduate schools only accept students with undergraduate psychology degrees.

Choosing a Forensic Psychology Bachelor’s Program

Not many schools offer degrees specifically in forensic science. However, you have other options: major in psychology with a minor in criminal justice, major in psychology with a forensic psychology focus, or similar paths that provide relevant coursework.

You will take general courses in psychology, such as child psychology, human development, and cognitive psychology. Courses that focus on forensic psychology or criminal justice may include sociology of crime and deviant behavior, criminal psychology, and the legal system.

Most undergraduate psychology programs can be completed within four years of full-time study.

2. Earn an Advanced Degree (Culminating with a Doctorate)

A doctoral degree is the standard qualification needed to practice in the field. You’ll need to have either a Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) or Psy.D. (Doctor of Psychology) degree to use the title of psychologist.

About Master’s Programs in Forensic Psychology

You don’t necessarily need to complete a master’s degree in psychology to apply for a doctoral program. Some candidates choose to pursue a separate master’s degree before applying to a doctoral program, to boost their chances of getting into the Ph.D. or Psy.D. program of their choice. A master’s may be particularly helpful for those who were unable to take specific forensic psychology and criminal justice courses at the bachelor’s level.

A master’s program curriculum will train you on how to effectively work with witnesses, victims, and criminals. It will also help you learn the ins and outs of the American legal system. Specialization tracks can permit you to develop extensive expertise in a specific area. Popular specialization tracks include forensic psychology in the legal system and forensic psychology for mental health workers.

Typical courses you might take include psychopathology, criminal assessment, domestic violence, and prison reform. Master’s programs can usually be completed within two years.

Selecting a Doctoral Program in Forensic Psychology

You’ll need to either earn a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree to practice in the field as a psychologist. The former tends to focus on research and teaching, while the latter centers more on clinical work.

Typically, aspiring forensic psychologists will choose a doctoral degree in clinical psychology with a forensic psychology concentration, or a legal psychology doctorate—it is less common to find a dedicated forensic psychology doctoral program. (In checking program accreditation, note that the APA accredits doctoral programs in clinical psychology, among other fields, but not in forensic psychology specifically.)

In most doctoral-level programs, students learn about social psychology, human development, criminal justice and criminology, criminal psychology, and statistics. Coursework might include:

  • Evaluation and treatment of offenders, including sex offenders
  • Family systems and family treatment
  • Interrogation and interviewing
  • Issues in family law
  • Psychology of violence
  • Psychology and the legal system
  • Psychopathology
  • Research, theory, design, and methods
  • Social psychology
  • Theories of criminal behavior
  • Theories of personality and counseling

Programs generally take four to eight years to finish.

3. Gain Experience in Forensic Psychology

After earning a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree from an accredited doctoral program, forensic psychologists will need “the equivalent of two years of organized, sequential, supervised professional experience, one year of which is an American Psychological Association (APA)- or Canadian Psychological Association (CPA)-accredited predoctoral internship,” according to the APA.

4. Obtain State Licensure

If you plan to become a clinician, you will need to become licensed. Each state has different requirements for licensure. Usually, applicants must obtain a doctoral degree, complete a set number of supervised training hours, and pass an oral or written exam.

According to the APA, graduates who expect to be employed “at a college or university, state or federal institution, research laboratory or a corporation may be exempt from having to be licensed in some states.”

Visit the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) for more information about state licensing requirements.

5. Become Board Certified

Although not an absolute requirement for practice, professional certification can help boost your career. Board certification is a voluntary process that involves being evaluated by a recognized board—for forensic psychology, this is the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP). Becoming certified shows that you have the necessary skills to work as a forensic psychologist.

The process typically involves a credential review and passing an oral and written exam. You will also undergo a background check to ensure there is nothing on your record that the Board would deem “serious ethical misconduct or unlawful behavior.”

Online Forensic Psychology Degrees

Online programs usually offer more flexibility than their on-campus counterparts, as you can take online coursework from anywhere. You may be able to take longer to complete a program or, in some cases, finish a program more quickly. You can get the same quality of education in an accredited online school that you would in a traditional brick-and-mortar school.

You can find many accredited bachelor’s and master’s degrees in psychology or criminal justice that are offered online. There are also online psychology doctoral degrees available.

For doctoral studies, note that the APA—the relevant accrediting body for psychology—doesn’t accredit any fully online doctoral programs. The APA does accredit some hybrid doctoral programs, which are a combination of online and in-person learning. However, there are online doctoral programs offered that do not have APA accreditation but are accredited by other agencies recognized by the U.S. Department of Education. Such programs may be perfectly acceptable by employers and state licensure boards. Make sure to check for accreditation and your state’s requirements when you are exploring schools.

Personality Traits of a Successful Forensic Psychologist

All good clinical psychologists possess certain strengths and skills. Psychologists across the board have talents and abilities that enable them to:

  • Approach work systematically
  • Be non-judgmental
  • Communicate and listen well
  • Exhibit empathy
  • Problem-solve and make decisions

Forensic psychologists must have all the above traits as well as more specific abilities including:

  • An ability to establish a relationship with people whose behavior may be disturbing or upsetting
  • Teamwork and leadership skills
  • Planning and research experience and the ability to analyze and present statistical information
  • Self-awareness and a high level of security awareness
  • A non-discriminatory and impartial approach
  • Resilience and the capacity to cope with an element of personal risk

Forensic Psychologist Resources

If forensic psychology is the field for you, it’s important to stay abreast of current trends. It’s also helpful to have access to resources that can expand your knowledge, guide you in areas such as accreditation, and provide you with information about career opportunities. Whether you are looking to enroll in a psychology degree or already working as a forensic psychologist, you may find the following resources useful.

  • American Board of Forensic Psychology: ABFP runs the certification processes for forensic psychology. This site allows you to apply for board certification, find specialists, and discover professional development/continuing education workshops.
  • APA: What is Forensic Psychology?: This page provides the official definition and explanation of the field of forensic psychology from the American Psychological Association.
  • Zur Institute: Forensic Psychology Resources: The Zur Institute is an online-only continuing education resource. This particular page provides resources for forensic psychologists.
  • American Psychology-Law Society: This group works to advance psychology’s effects on the legal field, further the education of psychologists regarding legal topics, and help the public understand the interconnections of psychology and law. They offer informational resources and training programs, and they run a conference.
  • International Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology: This nonprofit group works toward helping criminal justice professionals in creating and implementing new and humane practices across the globe.
  • Society for Police and Criminal Psychology: Focusing on law enforcement and judicial systems, this group focuses on applying psychological principles to all aspects of criminal justice.


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